The ingress of water is achieved by contraction of radial muscles in the mantle wall, and flapper valves shut when strong circular muscles force the water out through the siphon. The octopus (plural octopuses) is a soft-bodied, eight-limbed mollusc of the order Octopoda (/ɒkˈtɒpədə/, ok-TO-pə-də). In particular, the Coleoidea subclass (cuttlefish, squid, and octopuses ) is thought to be the most intelligent invertebrates and an important example of advanced cognitive evolution in animals , though nautilus intelligence is also a subject of growing interest among zoologists.  This would explain pupils shaped like the letter U, the letter W, or a dumbbell, as well as explaining the need for colourful mating displays. The muscles of the mantle then contract to force water through a narrower opening called a siphon, creating movement. They are known as "soft-bodied" cephalopods, lacking the external shell of most molluscs and other cephalopods like the nautiloids and the extinct Ammonoidea.  Maze and problem-solving experiments have shown evidence of a memory system that can store both short- and long-term memory. Ink clouds of some species might act as pseudomorphs, or decoys that the predator attacks instead. This process takes place by the octopus drawing water into a cavity in its body, then expelling the jet of water from a contractile mantle, and aiming it …  The terrifyingly powerful Gorgon of Greek mythology has been thought to have been inspired by the octopus or squid, the octopus itself representing the severed head of Medusa, the beak as the protruding tongue and fangs, and its tentacles as the snakes. Octopus lifespan is limited by reproduction: males can live for only a few months after mating, and females die shortly after their eggs hatch. They sense movement and sound with their swim bladder. 5. The research was conducted on live Giant Pacific octopuses (Enteroctopus dofleini) and East Pacific red octopuses (Octopus rubescens), both native to the North Pacific Ocean. , Most species are solitary when not mating, though a few are known to occur in high densities and with frequent interactions, signaling, mate defending and eviction of individuals from dens. A gland attached to the sac produces the ink, and the sac stores it. The scientific Latin term octopus was derived from Ancient Greek ὀκτώπους, a compound form of ὀκτώ (oktō, "eight") and πούς (pous, "foot"), itself a variant form of ὀκτάπους, a word used for example by Alexander of Tralles (c. 525–605) for the common octopus. The infundibulum provides adhesion while the acetabulum remains free, and muscle contractions allow for attachment and detachment. The New Octopus.  Extensive connective tissue lattices support the respiratory muscles and allow them to expand the respiratory chamber. " Aristotle noted that the octopus had a hectocotyl arm and suggested it might be used in sexual reproduction.  Other zoologists thought it a spermatophore; the German zoologist Heinrich Müller believed it was "designed" to detach during copulation. , Octopuses are highly intelligent; the extent of their intelligence and learning capability are not well defined. Led by […] Many species, including Octopus vulgaris, the common octopus, hatch into what is called a paralarval stage, a phase of development unique to certain octopus, cuttlefish and squid. Perhaps the most common type of locomotion used by cephalopods is jet propulsion.To travel by jet propulsion, a cephalopod such as a squid or octopus will fill its muscular mantle cavity (which is used to get oxygenated-water to their gills) with water and then quickly expel the water out of the siphon. The haemocytes play an important role in the recognition and elimination of foreign bodies and wound repair. When a sucker attaches to a surface, the orifice between the two structures is sealed. This is the octopuses fastest means of locomotion. The giant Pacific octopus, one of the two largest species of octopus, may live for as much as five years.  Octopuses often break out of their aquariums and sometimes into others in search of food. Octopuses are not territorial but generally remain in a home range; they may leave the area in search of food. It has two eyes, eight long arms with suckers, a round head, a bilaterally symmetric body and a mantle. Octopuses, squids and cuttlefish belong to the clade Coleoidea. , The ink sac of an octopus is located under the digestive gland.  The mantle cavity has muscular walls and contains the gills; it is connected to the exterior by a funnel or siphon. Make sure to watch in HD!!! The dorsal side of the disc grows upwards and forms the embryo, with a shell gland on its dorsal surface, gills, mantle and eyes.  A study of this behaviour led to the suggestion that the two rearmost appendages may be more accurately termed "legs" rather than "arms". Where cephalopods are concerned, marine biologists are careful to distinguish between "arms" and "tentacles." Colour vision appears to vary from species to species, for example being present in O. aegina but absent in O.  Food is broken down and is forced into the oesophagus by two lateral extensions of the esophageal side walls in addition to the radula. Octopus Necklace. The venom appears to be able to penetrate the skin without a puncture, given prolonged contact. The blood of the giant Pacific octopus has a copper-rich protein called hemocyanin that improves its ability to transport oxygen in cold ocean environments. Easily the most bizarre creature in the sea, the octopus is a cephalopod of many talents, with DNA like that of no other animal. , Nearly all octopuses are predatory; bottom-dwelling octopuses eat mainly crustaceans, polychaete worms, and other molluscs such as whelks and clams; open-ocean octopuses eat mainly prawns, fish and other cephalopods.  It’s interesting to ask how that works. , Once they have been seen by a predator, they commonly try to escape but can also use distraction with an ink cloud ejected from the ink sac. Other colour-changing cells are reflective iridophores and white leucophores.  A complex hydraulic mechanism releases the sperm from the spermatophore, and it is stored internally by the female.  Bites are reported each year across the animals' range from Australia to the eastern Indo-Pacific Ocean. In an alternative method of swimming, some species flatten themselves dorso-ventrally, and swim with the arms held out sideways, and this may provide lift and be faster than normal swimming. It takes about three hours for O. vulgaris to create a 0.6 mm (0.024 in) hole. Octopus ink contains a chemical compound called tyrosinase that helps to control the production of melanin. Ian Fleming's 1966 short story collection Octopussy and The Living Daylights, and the 1983 James Bond film were partly inspired by Hugo's book. , The interior surfaces of the arms are covered with circular, adhesive suckers. The siphon is used both for respiration and for locomotion, by expelling a jet of water. It has been proposed that the naturally short lifespan may be functional to prevent rapid overpopulation. , Octopuses are gonochoric and have a single, posteriorly-located gonad which is associated with the coelom. For other uses, see, Cosgrove, J.A. The tract consists of a crop, where the food is stored; a stomach, where food is ground down; a caecum where the now sludgy food is sorted into fluids and particles and which plays an important role in absorption; the digestive gland, where liver cells break down and absorb the fluid and become "brown bodies"; and the intestine, where the accumulated waste is turned into faecal ropes by secretions and blown out of the funnel via the rectum. Today, you’re going to learn 38 verbs of movement.  The alternative plural "octopi" is considered grammatically incorrect because it wrongly assumes that octopus is a Latin second declension "-us" noun or adjective when, in either Greek or Latin, it is a third declension noun. Where cephalopods are concerned, marine biologists are careful to distinguish between "arms" and "tentacles." When Mr. Game & Watch returns to the salvage ship, he gets three extra points. Also check out Sound Words in English: Bang, Smash, Crash & 39 More..  The lamella structure of the gills allows for a high oxygen uptake, up to 65% in water at 20 °C (68 °F).  In cold conditions with low oxygen levels, haemocyanin transports oxygen more efficiently than haemoglobin.  The veined octopus collects discarded coconut shells, then uses them to build a shelter, an example of tool use. , Some species have other modes of feeding. , A battle with an octopus plays a significant role in Victor Hugo's book Travailleurs de la mer (Toilers of the Sea), relating to his time in exile on Guernsey. )", "Ask an expert: Are there any freshwater cephalopods? They have been reported to practise observational learning, although the validity of these findings is contested.  The vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis) also lacks tentacles but has sensory filaments. It is used to move the host about and consists mainly of muscles. CAMOUFLAGE They’re able to change their color and texture to camouflage themselves in the blink of an eye, thanks to a complex system of specialized pigment sacs called chromatophores, nerves and muscles. Is Octopus the smartest animal? To do this they use specialised skin cells which change the appearance of the skin by adjusting its colour, opacity, or reflectivity. It lives at least 13,100 feet (4,000 m) below the surface. More than 60% of RNA transcripts for coleoid brains are recoded by editing, compared to less than 1% for a human or fruit fly.  The larger Pacific striped octopus however is social, living in groups of up to 40 individuals that share dens. , Cephalopods have existed for 500 million years and octopus ancestors were in the Carboniferous seas 300 million years ago.  They are not known to be migratory. Once the shell is penetrated, the prey dies almost instantaneously, its muscles relax, and the soft tissues are easy for the octopus to remove. For example, a 2.4-metre (8 ft) Pacific octopus, said to be nearly perfectly camouflaged, "lunged" at a diver and "wrangled" over his camera before it let go. They trail their eight appendages behind them as they swim. , The eggs have large yolks; cleavage (division) is superficial and a germinal disc develops at the pole. Octopus move using a form of jet propulsion. Both the structures and editing sites are conserved in the coleoid genome and the mutation rates for the sites are severely hampered. A carcass of the seven-arm octopus, Haliphron atlanticus, weighed 61 kg (134 lb) and was estimated to have had a live mass of 75 kg (165 lb). :75, In laboratory experiments, octopuses can be readily trained to distinguish between different shapes and patterns.  The arms and sometimes other body parts are prepared in various ways, often varying by species or geography. The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is a mollusc belonging to the class Cephalopoda. Water is forced out of a special structure called a funnel, and the octopus is propelled in the opposite direction. No root or activator required! An octopus has 8 arms called tentacles. Octopuses use one central brain to control their nervous systems and a small brain in each arm to control movement. The fastest way for an octopus to travel involves a forceful expulsion of water from the mantle cavity; by contracting the mantle, the resultant jet of water from the siphon propels the octopus through the sea. :276–277 Experimental removal of both optic glands after spawning was found to result in the cessation of broodiness, the resumption of feeding, increased growth, and greatly extended lifespans.
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